Dedicated to the sun god, konark is the culmination of odisha temple architecture, and one of the most outstanding monuments of religious architecture in the world. One of the main attractions of this temple is the 24 wheels which are carved around the base of the temple. Among all the temples of odisha, the lingaraja temple at bhubaneswar deserves special mention. Odisha temple architecture and south indian temples a. It is a nagara temple placed on a high platform accessed by stairs. The main temple has curvilinear shape with a chakra of lord vishnu on the top. The main architectural features of odisha temples are classified into three orders, i. The style consists of three distinct types of temples. Media in category temples in odisha the following 102 files are in this category, out of 102 total. Temple architecture of orissa download ebook pdfepub.
Influence of vernacular architecture in evolution of. In bhubaneswar, several sanctuaries were erected so that taken together they form a city of temples. History of evolution of temple architecture in odisha 2. They conform to the indoaryan nagara style architecture, with distinctive features specific to the region. The sun temple of konark in orissa, also famous as the black pagoda, is undoubtedly one of the finest monuments of india.
Kandariya mahadeo temple at khajuraho is the epitome of temple architecture in central india. Aspirants applying for ssc and statelevel jobs in odisha must have a look at odisha gk. Influence of vernacular architecture in evolution of temple. Stipulated architectural principles with ample provision for artistic improvisation enabled the progressive generations to excel in splendour and created masterpieces in stone called the temple of orissa. It was constructed from oxidized and weathered ferruginous sandstone by king narasimhadeva i 12381250 ce of the eastern ganga dynasty. Only a portion of the sun temple at konark, the largest of the temples of the golden triangle exists today, and it is still staggering in size. A temple of great architectural brilliance and a splendid blend of architecturearthistory, the konark temple consists of a vimana main temple intended for housing the deity, jagamohana hall in front of vimana from where the worshippers could have a glimpse of the deity and a nirtyamandapa dancing hall, but a separate bhogamandapa offering hall was not built at this place. When you browse our earlier articles on hindu temple architecture. The pyramidal roof to the jagamohana present in the temple was the first of its kind over the conventional two tier structure. This is how temple architecture in odisha flourished to its mature phase with evolutions of its plan, evolution of its elements and evolution of its built form and shape. Mar 06, 2010 the antiquity of orissa is endorsed by her temple architecture, which is as sublime as it is aesthetically innervating. The kalinga architecture as it is known came into existence in the 6th century ad and continued unabated till the 16th century ad.
This remarkable structure is crafted out of darkest shade sandstone looking exemplary in its form. So in india, odisha with its fascinating series of temples, form an exciting area to study the evolution of temple architecture. Neither this bulletin nor any parts of it may be relied upon as a contract between temple university and any student, applicant, or other user of this site. A temple of great architectural brilliance and a splendid blend of architecture arthistory, the konark temple consists of a vimana main temple intended for housing the deity, jagamohana hall in front of vimana from where the worshippers could have a glimpse of the deity and a nirtyamandapa dancing hall. Temple bulletins 20192020 temple university at any time. The main sanctum which enshrined the presiding deity has fallen off. James ferugsson 180886, a noted critic and historian rated the temple as one of the finest examples of purely hindu temple in india. The temple faces west and is constructed in a lower basement amidst a group of temples.
A shape and geometrical analysis of orissan hindu temple architecture through dimensional analysis has been carried out to know the evolution process of orissan temple architecture. In ancient sastras or literature the temple is refered as devagriha, devalay. The history of temple architecture in orissa can be illustrated with a continuous series of temples from about the 6th to 16th century a. A read is counted each time someone views a publication summary such as the title, abstract, and list of authors, clicks on a figure, or views or downloads the fulltext. The nagara or north indian temple style the style of temple architecture that became popular in northern india is. The elegance of its surface treatment makes it one of the crowning achievements of the kalinga style of architecture. All books are in clear copy here, and all files are secure so dont worry about it. Temples of odisha are famous all over the world, for the unique characteristics of their architecture and sculptural style. Even in ruins, the temple complex is a magnificent monument where the vitality and spirit of bygone creative age in the history of orissa are echoed e en today in its life like sculptures. The land odisha is known for its temple architecture which is different from other style of temple in india. For centuries now the orissan golden triangle of bhubaneswarpurikonark has retained a vantage point on indias pilgrimage circuit for their devotional architectural background.
This article is all about gk questions and current affairs of odisha 2020. The mukteswara temple belonging to the 19th century ad. Jun 26, 2014 this pin was discovered by j k sreenivasan jaykay. These notes will also be useful for other competitive exams like banking po, ssc, state civil services exams and so on. It bears architectural splendour and is regarded as one of the best archaeological monument of the east reflecting kalinga type of architect. Lingaraj temple, bhubaneswar wikimedia a 12th century temple, the lingaraj temple is considered to be a high point in the tradition of temple building in odisha. Lingaraj temple is a spectacular specimen of orissa style of temples with a hint of kalinga style of architecture. These temples are remarkable for their plan and elevation. An orissan temple deul usually consists of a sanctum, one or several front porches jagamohana usually with pyramidal roofs, a dancing hall nata mandir and a hall of offerings bhog mandir. The historical monuments of odisha stand testament to the glorious architectural heritage of the state.
Orissa s history dates back to the days of the mahabharata. All prospective and current students should consult with appropriate university offices to verify. Evolution of kalingan style of temple social research foundation. Temples of odisha pdf list of all odisha temple pdf. By the middle of the th century the odishan temple architecture attained its climax. The temple is built in the deula style that has four components namely, garbhagriha, jagamohana. Konark sun temple architecture, sun temple konark architecture. Konark sun temple is a th century sun temple also known as the black pagoda, at.
The main style of hindu temple architecture in india had its modest beginning precisely from the mauryan rule i. Architecture is an art, and it may be similar from region to region. The main entrance is located in the east, while there are small entrances in the north and south. Lingaraj temple bhubaneswar odisha timings, images. The existing ancient monuments of odisha cover a period of about two thousand years and present a varied and interesting study. Lingaraj temple is a temple of the hindu god shiva and is one of the oldest temples of the temple city bhubaneswar, a revered pilgrimage center and the capital of the state of odisha.
The temple is built in the kalinga style of temple architecture. The construction of this temple is a masterpiece of orissa s medieval architecture. The lingaraj temple is the largest temple in bhubaneswar. Ncert notes on important topics for the upsc civil services exam preparation. This outer wall surrounds the whole temple and is known as meghananda pacheri. The odiya kings are known to harbor profound passion for creative masterpieces and many of them through the ages, founded a plethora of temples and monuments which are looked at with awe and wonder. The antiquity of orissa is endorsed by her temple architecture which is as subline as it is aesthetically innervating. Temple architecture of high standard developed in almost all regions during ancient india. It is enshrined within a spacious compound wall of laterite measuring 520 ft 160 m by 465 ft 142 m. For centuries now, the orissan golden triangle of bhubaneswarpurikonark has retained a vintage point on indias pilgrimage circuit for their devotional as well as architectural background. The temple was built on the basis of oriya architecture and has around 120 temples and shrines inside. It has a deula that rises to a height of about 150 feet. Temples like mukteswar temple, rajarani temple, sun temple konark, puri jagannath temple and many more sing the saga of this self.
The main architectural features of odisha temples are classified in three orders, i. Goddess chitrakarini is being worshipped in this temple as major deity. Temple architecture and sculpture hindu, buddhist and. There is evidence of gupta influence from a sculpted door frame. The silpa text of odisha mentions three types of temples, rekhadeul, pidhadeul and khakaradeul. The state was known as utkal, which meant place of art of highest degree. From the source, pen and ink drawing of a sculpture that is part of the processional chariot pulled by horses from the surya temple at konarak in orissa, from an album of 37 drawings 43 folios of sculpture at jajpur, puri, bezwada and sitanagar made during a journey from bengal through orissa to the coromandel coast, dated 1815. Its scale, refinement and conception represent the strength and stability of the ganga dynasty as.
These specially designed odisha general knowledge 2020 questions and answers are very useful for national level examination. Shree jagannatha temple is the main pilgrimage destination in odisha. Konark sun temple surya mandira is a thcentury ce sun temple at konark about 35 kilometres 22 mi northeast from puri on the coastline of odisha, india. Finally, various elements of ornamentation such as gavaksha, vyalayali, kalpalata, amalaka, kalasha, etc. Famous temples of odisha, odisha temples, hindu temples in. The temples of odisha, dating from the 8th to about midth century, provide a study in one of the earliest movements in the indoaryan style of architecture. Doc evolution of temple architecture in orissa laxmi. Sun temple introduction konark sun temple is build in thcentury ce at konark in odisha, india. The temple is an example of orissan architecture of ganga. For centuries now, the orissan golden triangle of bhubaneswarpuri konark has retained a vintage point on indias pilgrimage circuit for their devotional as well as architectural background. The most famous tourist spots in orissa are konark sun temple, chandipur beach and puri.
The main portion of the temple is also surrounded by a wall known as kurma bheda. Temple architecture and sculpture hindu, buddhist and jain. Early medieval indian history spanning between eighth to thirteenth century a. It is surrounded by the states of west bengal to the northeast, jharkhand to the north, chhattisgarh to the west and northwest, and andhra pradeshto the south and southwest. Please click button to get temple architecture of orissa book now. Muslimmaratha conflict, maratha occupation of odisha. The architecture of muktesvara temple is known as the gem of odisha architecture. The distinct architectural style of temple construction in different parts was a result of geographical, climatic, ethnic, racial, historical and linguistic diversities. The main entrance of the temple is towards the east, while smaller entrances exist towards the northern and southern sides. Vernacular architecture agriculture religion and belief. Terracotta was the main medium in bengal and northeast until the 7th century. The sun temple of konark download ebook pdf, epub, tuebl, mobi. Pdf the chitrakarini temple of bhubaneswar odisha, india. Out of the three styles of temple architecture found in india like nagara, dravida and vesara, odisha has followed the nagara with a distinctive.
The temple is attributed to king narasimhadeva i of the eastern ganga dynasty about 1250 ce. Hindu temple architecture as the main form of hindu architecture has many varieties of style, though the basic nature of the hindu temple remains the same, with the essential feature an inner sanctum, the garbha griha or wombchamber, where the primary murti or the image of a deity is housed in a simple bare cell. Ancient indian temples are classified in three broad types. The vimala temple or bimala temple is a hindu templededicated to goddess vimala bimala, located within the jagannath temple complex in puri in the indian state of odisha. Indian temple architecture evolution, type, design. Temple architecture in orissa, evolved over a long period of time. The temple architecture in india had its humble beginning right from the mauryan period i. The jagannath temple, one of the four holiest places dhamas of hinduism, in the coastal town of puri in odisha.
Ko nark sun temple was constructed in the thirteenth century and is at a high of 30 meters. Of these, three are most famous the lingaraja temple at bhubaneswar 11th century, the jagannath temple at puri 12th century and the great sun temple at konark th century. The temple of lingaraja, the biggest of all at bhubaneswar is located within a spacious compound wall of. It is generally regarded as a shakti pitha, among the holiest temples dedicated to the hindu goddess. The audience hall survives in its entirety, but only small portions of the dancing hall nata mandir and the. This is how temple architecture in odisha flourished to its. Temples of odisha are well known for their architectural splendor. Arch, semvi, secc introduction location of orissa odisha is a state which lies on the east coast of the indian subcontinent. The temple architecture architecture in odisha found its supreme expression in the form of temples, some of which are among, finest in the country.
Pdf orissan temple architecture and vastu purusha mandala. Hello friends, in this article, i am going to talk about odisha gk 2020 questions odisha state gk in pdf. Temples as free standing structures came to orissa after the. It may be religious or sociocultural point of view, construction of temples has. However, the temple architecture of odisha corresponds to altogether a different category for their unique representations called kalinga style of temple architecture. Mukteshvara temple also emerged as a popular religious tourist attraction in odisha for its architecture which symbolizes the innovation in kalinga style of architecture. Odisha the land of enchanting beauty is well known for its exquisite handicrafts. The lingaraja temple faces east and is built of sandstone and laterite. Laxmikanta mishra early medieval indian history spanning between eighth to thirteenth century a.
This site is like a library, you could find million book here by using search box in the. This style broadly comes under the nagara style in kalinga architecture, basically a temple is made in two parts, a tower. In kalinga architecture, basically a temple is made in two parts, a tower and a hall. Temple architecture east india and odisha unacademy. Builtin the 10 th century, mukteswar temple belongs to the somavamshi dynasty and is believed to be sculpted by yayatii. Sakhigopala temple formally known as satyabadi gopinatha temple is a medieval temple dedicated to lord gopinathalocated in the town of sakhigopala on the puri bhubaneshwar highway in odisha, india. As the name chitrakarini reflects, this is a temple of female. But most of the times, it gets evolved and influenced from local traditions and practices rather than getting inspired from other places. Most of the indian religious philosophies and rituals believe in idol worshiping and from the ancient time, temple has been playing an important role in the society. The nagara style temple orissa temple architecture. The lingaraj temple at bhubaneswar boasts of a 150 foot high deul while the jagannath temple at puri is about 200 feet high and it dominates the. Society and economy during the bhaumakara, somavamsis and the155174 ganga period. The lakshmana temple of khajuraho, dedicated to vishnu, was built in 954 by the chandela king, dhanga.848 606 1238 1280 719 749 1227 327 1186 362 100 340 1154 503 610 349 288 828 1000 599 752 823 992 519 362 1255 615 963 180 307 260 124 1286 412 72 1195 300 430 1120 1230